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The Nakh Èr nation also contributed to a number of other roots- for example the Arax valley (Èrashki, from a Hurrian/Nakh hydronym forming suffix).
Near the Èrs lived a tribe known as the Nakhchradzor.
The Durdzuks, a name the Georgians called the early medieval inhabitants of Ichkeria later, had a name derived from the settlement of Durdukka, near Lake Urmia.
In addition to these, there is also the very name of Naxcivan (Nakhichevan, from Nakh Che Bun), and Lake Van (similarly, from Bun, although it may instead be from Urartian biani; it is nonetheless the Armenian rendering of the Ersh bun).
The proto-language that is thought to be the ancestor of all Eastern Caucasian (“Alarodian”) languages, in fact, has words for concepts such as the wheel (which is first found in the Central Caucasus around 4000–3000 BCE), so it is thought that the region had intimate links to the Fertile Crescent (many scholars supporting the thesis that the Eastern Caucasians originally came from the Northern Fertile Crescent, and backing this up with linguistic affinities of the Urartian and Hurrian language to the Northeast Caucasus).
Johanna Nichols has suggested that the ancestors of Eastern Caucasians had been involved in the birth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent.
There was differentiation of professionals organized within clans.
There is evidence of an advanced stage of metallurgy.Jaimoukha notes in his book: “The kingdom of Urartu, which was made up of several small states, flourished in the 9th and 7th centuries BCE, and extended into the North Caucasus at the peaks of its power...” The Georgian chronicles of Leonti Mroveli state that the Urartians “returned” to their homeland (i.e.Kakheti) in the Trans-Caucasus, which had become by then “Kartlian domain”, after they were defeated.Bronze artifacts (dating back to the 19th century BCE) in modern-day Chechnya largely correspond with those of Hurria at the time, suggesting a cultural affinity.The Koban culture (the Iron Age) was the most advanced culture in Chechnya before recorded history, and also the most well-known. The most well-studied site was on the outskirts of Serzhen-Yurt, which was a major center from around the eleventh to the seventh centuries BCE.
Earlier finds show that extensive hunting was still practiced.